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Dr. Claude Chevaleyre

Researcher and Coordinator of Research Group "Beyond Slavery: Dependency in Asian History"

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University of Bonn
Bonn Center for Dependency and Slavery Studies
“Beyond Slavery: Dependency in Asian History”
Genscherallee 2
D-53113 Bonn

and

Research Fellow
Institute of East Asian Studies, ENS-Lyon
claude.chevaleyre[at]ens-lyon.fr

Research

At the crossroads of Chinese studies and labor history, my research addresses the global history of human bondage in Early Modern China (15th-19th centuries). It covers two main research fields. A first aspect of my research explores the articulations and interactions between norms, concepts, and practices of bondage. By confronting various normative sources (editions of the penal code, jurisprudence, legal exegesis, imperial proclamations, but also sources of domestic law and local norms) with the law in practice (i.e., judicial cases), I intend to lift the veil on Chinese conceptions of “unfree labor” and dependency, their evolutions over time, and their geographical disparities. To do so, I focus not only on the category that served as the conceptual matrix which many relations of dependency were built on (i.e.; “slaves” or “bondservants”, called nubi 奴婢in Chinese), but also on the labor and family identities situated in the grey zone between what we usually call “freedom” and “unfreedom” (or between “honorability” and “demeaning” to use Chinese concepts). I therefore also have a particular interest in local labor regimes, their logics and organization, and the forms of labor mobilization and immobilization in Early Modern Chinese context. A second aspect of my research concerns human trafficking in Early modern China and East Asia. Here, I attempt to reconstruct the interregional networks of human trafficking in China and identify their operators, sources, destinations, and markets, as well as their transnational connections with neighboring areas of East Asia and beyond. This project will result in the elaboration of a database that should help understand the local dynamics and global interactions of human trafficking in China.

Both aspects of my research are interrelated and converge in an overarching interest for the semantics of dependency. By looking at concepts and practices of “unfree” labor, dependency, and human trafficking in China, my research also approaches Eastern Asia as a normative space within which strong conceptual proximities gave rise to highly singular and differentiated forms of bondage and dependency, ones that still need to be explored in a comparative and transnational perspective. By looking at these phenomena from China and Eastern Asia, my research also questions the singularity of Western experiences, as well as the relevance of categories elaborated from Western historical contexts as universal concepts to think dependency as a global phenomenon.

Current Position

  • 2018–present      Research Fellow, Institute of East Asian Studies, ENS-Lyon, France
  • Education

    • 2003–2015          Ph.D. in Chinese history, EHESS: “Research on the Bondage Institution in Late Imperial China”
    • 2000–2002          M.A. in Chinese history, École des hautes études en sciences sociales, EHESS, Paris, France
    • 1998–2000          M.A. in Chinese language and civilization, INALCO, Paris, France
    • 1994–1998          B.A. in Chinese language and civilization, Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, INALCO, Paris,
                                  France

    Academic Positions

    • 2017                    Lecturer, Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, INALCO, Paris, France
    • 2017                    Postdoctoral Fellow, International Institute of Social History, IISH, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    • 2016–2018          Lecturer, Université Paris-Diderot, Paris, France
    • 2016                    Postdoctoral Fellow, École française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO), Paris, France
    • 2013–2015          Researcher, EHESS, Centre de recherches historiques, Paris, France
    • 2007–2009          Research Associate, Chair of Modern Chinese history, Collège de France, Paris, France

    Awards

    • Two doctoral dissertation prizes (Chancellerie des Universités de Paris & Association française d’études chinoises)

    Participation in Collaborative Project

    • 2018–present      Asia Slavery Database project member
    • 2017–present      Slavery in the Indian Ocean World and beyond network member
    • 2015–2016          Free/Unfree Labor France-Stanford program member
    • 2014–2016          Scientific committee member of the Travail Libre/travail forcé. Contraintes locales et dynamiques globales
                                  research program
    • 2012–2014          Indian Ocean World: Forms of bondage in the Indian Ocean. Origins, Structure and transformations research
                                  program member
    • 2011–2015          Legalizing Space in China research program member

    Other Academic Activities

    • 2016–present      Co-editor (with P. Ismard, B. Rossi and C. Vidal) of an Histoire mondiale de l’esclavage (Seuil edition, 2021)
    • 2016–2018          Research seminar on the Social, economic and institutional history of early modern China, with Luca Gabbiani
                                  (EHESS)
    • 2015–present      Co-editor of the Social Histories of Work in Asia series (Amsterdam UP)
    • 2004–2009          Board Member of the French Association for Chinese Studies

    Third-Party Funding

    • Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for Scholarly Exchanges doctoral fellowship
    • French Ministry for Education and Research Area Studies research grant

    Membership in Projects of Other Institutions

    Worlds of Related Coercions in Work

    The COST Action "Worlds of Related Coercions in Work" (WORCK) calls for a radical change of perspective in labour history. It links the stories of work and production with those of violence, expropriation and marginalisation.

    By studying the persistence and transformations of coercion and bondage across gender orders, geographic regions and historical eras, WORCK shifts the focus of labour history: Neither the male-breadwinner model nor the free wage labourer or the capitalist mode of production can form the blueprint for this new history of WORCK. Instead, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of coercion in all work relations throughout history is the pivot of this endeavour.

    Members: Dr. Claude Chevaleyre; Dr. Christian de Vito; Dr. Hanne Østhus

    More information

    Selected Publications

    • The Abolition of Slavery and the Status of Slaves in Late Imperial China. In: Alessandro Stanziani, Gwyn Campbell (eds.): Human Bondage and Rights in Afro-Eurasia from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day. Forthcoming 2018.
    • Histoire oubliée de la rivière Lai de Zhou Tingying. In: Écrire l’histoire 17 (2017), 44-55.
    • Asservir pour punir. La nature pénale du statut d’esclave dans la Chine des Ming. In: Extrême-Orient, Extrême-Occident 41 (2017), 93-117.
    • Derrière les murs de la Cité interdite. In: L’Histoire 431 (January 2017), 50-53.
    • Under Pressure and out of Respect for Human Dignity: the 1910 Chinese Abolition. In: Myriam Cottias, Marie-Jeanne Rossignol (eds.): In Distant Ripples of the British Abolitionist Wave. Trenton 2017.
    • Qubie liupin: 17 shiji Zhongguo de nubi shenfen, falü yu sifa duidai” 区别流品: 17 世纪中国的奴婢身份、法律与司法对待. [The status, law and legal treatment of slaves in seventeenth century China]. In: Zhou Dongping, Zhu Teng: Falü shi yiping. [Legal History Studies]. Beijing: 2013, 164-170.
    • Acting as Master and Bonservant. Considerations on Status, Identites, and the Nature of ‘Bondservitude’ in Late Ming China. In: A. Stanziani (ed.): Labour, Coercion and Economic Growth in Eurasia, 17th-20th Centuries. Leiden 2013, 237-272.
    • Chine 2011-2012. La deuxième économie mondiale à la croisée des chemins. In: Encyclopédie de l’État du Monde. Paris 2012. Online Access.
    • Étienne Balázs (1905-1963). Œuvres, projets, appréciations. In: Pierre-Étienne Will, Isabelle Ang: Actualité d’Étienne Balázs (1905-1963): témoignages et réflexions pour un centenaire. Paris 2010, 111-130.
    • Translation (Chinese to French) of Lau Nap-yin, “Droit et famille en Chine à l’époque des Song (960-1279). In: Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales 6 (2006), 1377-1446.
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